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NO 17
Acronym DMC
Name Direccion Meteorologica de Chile
Address 1
Address 2 Dirección Meteorológica de Chile
Address 3 Av. Portales 3450, Estación Central - Santiago
Country/Territory Chile
Website http://www.meteochile.gob.cl/


Name Gaston Torres
Email gtorres@meteochile.cl
Organization No 17
Organization acronym DMC
Organization name Direccion Meteorologica de Chile
Organization country/territory Chile
Address 1
Address 2
Address 3
Country/territory Chile
Last updated date 2020-06-30

Name Martin Steinbacher
Prefix Dr.
Email martin.steinbacher@empa.ch
Organization No 23
Organization acronym Empa
Organization name Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Organization country/territory Switzerland
Address 1 Ueberlandstrasse 129
Address 2 CH-8600 Duebendorf
Address 3 Switzerland
Country/territory Switzerland
Tel +41 58 765 4048
Fax +41 58 765 1122
Last updated date 2020-07-13

NO 23
Acronym Empa
Name Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
 Background observation
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: WMO CO2 X2007
 2012-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: Picarro Inc., G2401, S/N CFKADS2031(CRDS)
 2012-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: 5 (m)
 1 second
 Four calibration tanks are measured automatically every 2 to 9 days. Three of them are tanks purchased from the GAW Central Calibration Laboratory (NOAA ESRL), the mole fractions of the fourth tank are determined by the GAW World Calibration Centre for CH4, CO2, CO and surface O3 (WCC-Empa). WCC-Empa also assigned the mole fractions of an additional target cylinder that is measured every second day for quality control.
the analyzer is regularly calibrated with four reference gases. All assigned mole fractions are reported on the WMO CO2 X2007 scale. The quality of the calibration is verified with a fifth reference gas (target cylinder).
 Quality assurance procedures involve time series plots, target tank (i.e. cylinders containing natural air with assigned trace gas mole fractions that are treated as (unknown) sample in a sequence of analyses) measurements, and consistency checks.
 [Hourly] high-resolution data are aggregated to 1min averages before hourly averages are calculated. Thus, ND (the number of detections) refers to the number of available 1min averages within the respective hour. Minimum requirement is availability of 20 1-min data within one hour.
 [Daily] hourly averages are aggregated to daily means. Thus, ND (the number of detections) refers to the number of available hourly averages within the respective day. Minimum requirement is availability of 8 hourly averages within on day.
 [Monthly] daily data are aggregated to monthly means. Thus, ND (the number of detections) refers to the number of available daily averages within the respective month. Minimum requirement is availability of 10 daily averages within one month.
 Scientific Aim : long-term trend of background mole fractions in South America
Sampling Environment : El Tololo is a background station in a pristine arid environment. Local emissions are rare and vegetation is sparse.
data are continuously recorded with 1 Hz sampling rate.
CO2 observations are performed with a commercially available instrument (Picarro Inc. G2401) based on the Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy technique coupled to a custom-built calibration unit. Along with CO2, the instrument is also capable to measure CH4, CO and H2O. Thus, the CH4 data can be corrected for interferences of water vapor. Thus, no drying is applied prior to analysis and CO2 dry air mole fractions are determined by application of an empirical humidity correction to the fully unaltered humid gas stream accounting for dilution and pressure broadening effects. The humidity correction function is determined on-site approximately twice a year.
tubing material: Dekabon/Synflex 1/4"" OD; total inlet length approx. 10m; flow rate into lab: 5 lpm; no drying prior to analysis; dry air mole fractions are determined by applying an empirical humidity correction
 Wind direction:
 Wind speed:
 Relative humidity:
 Precipitation amount:
 Air pressure:
 Air temperature:
 Dew point temperature:
 Sea water temperature:
 Sea surface water temperature:
 Sea water salinity:
 Sea surface water salinity:
Meteorological data may remain as first provded, even when greenhouse gas data are updated.
1  Installation and operation were supported by the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss through the project Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) between the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and MeteoSwiss.