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Updated: 22 Nov. 2018 (Next update scheduled for Nov. 2019)
The details provided on this page correspond to WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin No.14: November 2018 (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/ghg/GHGbulletin.html)

Global mean mole fraction data may be updated retrospectively due to recalibration or other quality control procedures associated with the source data. Such changes are usually minor, but WDCGG recommends using the latest release.

 Contents


 Global annual mean mole fractions

Download csv data files.
  CO2
CH4
N2O
Data
(csv file)
Mole fraction,
Uncertainty
Mole fraction,
Uncertainty
Mole fraction,
Uncertainty

Global annual mean mole fractions of major greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the WMO GAW global GHG observational network.
The averaging method is described in (1). Uncertainties (Unc.) represent 68% confidence levels (2, 3).

  CO2 [ppm] CH4 [ppb] N2O [ppb]
MeanUnc. MeanUnc. MeanUnc.
1984 344.3 0.1 1654 2 303.8 0.1
1985 345.7 0.1 1666 2 304.4 0.1
1986 347.2 0.1 1678 2 305.3 0.1
1987 349.0 0.1 1691 2 305.9 0.1
1988 351.3 0.1 1702 2 306.6 0.1
1989 353.0 0.2 1713 2 307.5 0.1
1990 354.1 0.1 1723 2 308.6 0.1
1991 355.4 0.1 1734 2 309.4 0.1
1992 356.1 0.1 1743 2 309.9 0.1
1993 357.0 0.1 1746 2 310.1 0.1
1994 358.5 0.1 1751 2 310.7 0.1
1995 360.4 0.1 1758 2 311.4 0.1
1996 362.1 0.1 1761 2 312.0 0.1
1997 363.3 0.1 1764 2 312.8 0.1
1998 366.0 0.1 1773 2 313.7 0.1
1999 368.0 0.2 1781 2 314.6 0.1
2000 369.4 0.2 1782 2 315.7 0.1
2001 370.9 0.2 1781 2 316.4 0.1
2002 372.9 0.1 1782 2 317.0 0.1
2003 375.3 0.1 1786 2 317.7 0.1
2004 377.1 0.1 1786 2 318.4 0.1
2005 379.2 0.1 1784 2 319.1 0.1
2006 381.3 0.1 1784 2 320.0 0.1
2007 383.1 0.1 1790 2 320.6 0.1
2008 385.1 0.1 1798 2 321.6 0.1
2009 386.7 0.1 1803 2 322.4 0.1
2010 388.9 0.1 1808 2 323.3 0.1
2011 390.9 0.1 1813 2 324.3 0.1
2012 393.1 0.2 1818 2 325.2 0.1
2013 395.7 0.2 1824 2 326.1 0.1
2014 397.7 0.1 1833 2 327.3 0.1
2015 400.1 0.1 1844 2 328.3 0.1
2016 403.3 0.2 1852 2 329.0 0.1
2017 405.5 0.1 1859 2 329.9 0.1
CO2
CH4
N2O

 Global monthly mean mole fractions

Download csv data files.
  CO2
CH4
N2O
Data
(csv file)
Mole fraction,
Growth rate
Mole fraction,
Growth rate
Mole fraction,
Growth rate


  CO2
CH4
N2O
Mole fraction
Growth rate
WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin No.14, 2018.


 Global analysis by WDCGG

Since 2006, WMO has published annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletins. These Bulletins report on the latest atmospheric abundances and rates of change for the main long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) — carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) — and provide a summary of contributions from other greenhouse gases. Submission of original observation data from WMO GAW contributors worldwide supports WDCGG's global analysis of major greenhouse gases for the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.

This page provides globally averaged data and graphs for CO2, CH4 and N2O as used in the Bulletin. The information is updated annually based on newly submitted observation data.

WDCGG global analysis is conducted after careful screening of observation data exclusively from stations at which WMO-traceable scales are adopted. Details of the analysis are provided in GAW Report No.184(1).

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL; the largest contributor of data to WDCGG) also calculates globally averaged mole fractions for major greenhouse gases(4). The main difference in global analysis between NOAA/ESRL and WDCGG is the site selection process. NOAA/ESRL conventionally focuses on greenhouse gas data from the marine boundary layer (MBL) to represent the background atmosphere, while WDCGG also uses data from inland stations(5) after stringent evaluation of their representativeness and traceability to WMO GAW standard scales.

Due to this difference, WDCGG globally averaged mole fractions for CO2 are around 0.4 ppm greater than those from NOAA/ESRL(1). However, CO2 trends and interannual variability are similar with both approaches.


 Information about citation

Figures and data in this page can be freely used with a citation, for instance:
"WMO Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, No.14, 2018."


 List of contributors

The global analyses can be impossible without the data contributors who conduct accurate measurements and submit the precious data to the WDCGG. The following table contains the contributors of the data actually have been used in the global analyses after screening process. For more information on stations, see the list of contributors and stations.

Organization Acronym Country/Territory
Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment Science Team(AGAGE) AGAGE Multinational
Center for Environmental Science in Saitama SAIPF Japan
China Meteorological Administration CMA China
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO Australia
Direcion Nacional del Antartico- Istituto Antartico Argentino, Buenos Aires, Argentina IAA Argentina
Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA NOAA United States of America
Environment and Climate Change Canada ECCC Canada
Federal Environment Agency Austria UBAA Austria
Federal Environmental Agency Germany UBAG Germany
Finnish Meteorological Institute FMI Finland
Hong Kong Observatory HKO Hong Kong, China
Hungarian Meteorological Service HMS Hungary
Italian Air Force Meteorological Service IAFMS Italy
Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment ENEA Italy
Japan Meteorological Agency JMA Japan
Korea Meteorological Administration KMA Republic of Korea
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement LSCE France
Meteorological Research Institute, JMA MRI Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies NIES Japan
National Institute of Environmental Research GERC Republic of Korea
National Institute of Meteorological Research, KMA METRI Republic of Korea
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd. NIWA New Zealand
National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate ISAC Italy
Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU Norway
Physics Institute, Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern KUP Switzerland
Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico - RSE S.p.A. RSE Italy
South African Weather Service SAWS South Africa
State Meteorological Agency of Spain AEMET Spain
Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research Empa Switzerland
University of Urbino, Dep. of Pure and Applied Sciences (DISPEA) UNIURB Italy
Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory MGO Russian Federation

References:

(1) Y. Tsutsumi, K. Mori, T. Hirahara, M. Ikegami, and T. J. Conway, 2009,
Technical Report of Global Analysis Method for Major Greenhouse Gases by the World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases, GAW Report No.184
(2) T. J. Conway, , P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, 1994,
Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL global air sampling network, J. Geophys. Res., vol.99, 22831-22855.
(3) Technical Note on uncertainty for the GHG global mean mole fractions by the WDCGG
(4) Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by NOAA/ESRL
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html
(5) Station distribution map for the WDCGG global analysis