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 Organization

NO 16
Acronym CSIRO
Name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Address 3 Private Bag 1, Aspendale, Vic, Australia 3195
Country/Territory Australia
Website https://research.csiro.au/acc/

 Contact(s)

Name Paul Krummel
Prefix Mr.
Email paul.krummel@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4568
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-07-30


Name Ray Langenfelds
Prefix Dr.
Email ray.langenfelds@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4598
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-07-30


Name Zoë Loh
Prefix Dr.
Email zoe.loh@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4518
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-06-29


 Background observation
 UTC
 permil
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: VPDB-CO2
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: Dual-inlet Finnigan MAT252 stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)(Mass spectrometry)
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: 10 (m)
 event
 The measured d45 and d46 values of CO2 extracted from sample air are obtained with respect to high-purity CO2 in the reference cell of the MAT252. The measured d45 and d46 values are converted to interim d13C and d18O values using a modified version of the procedure described by Allison et al. [1995]. The procedure includes corrections for IRMS cross contamination, sample loading, reference gas fractionation, and for the presence of N2O that is co-trapped with the CO2, using measured concentrations of N2O and CO2 in each sample [Francey et al., 1996]. The d13C and d18O values on the VPDB-CO2 scale are obtained from the interim sample values after a correction based on a comparison of measured and assigned values in the air standard (see below) that brackets sample measurement. The isotopic value of the reference cell CO2 and several corrections effectively cancel in this process. Air standards comprise a series of high-pressure air samples in high-quality aluminium cylinders, prepared with rigorous preconditioning and filling procedures. The cylinders are filled with ultra-dry air representative of the mid-to-high Southern Hemisphere marine boundary layer, so that d13C changes systematically as a result of increasing fossil CO2 emissions. New cylinders are introduced every two to three years so that a small difference is maintained between clean air samples and the reference air standard. The very small sample-size requirement of the measurements means that most high-pressure cylinder air standards used since 1991 remain in a surveillance suite. A new standard is assigned an isotopic composition by way of comparisons in a specified period with the previous standard, and checked against the surveillance suite. The CSIRO2005:CO2-in-air scale maintains high internal consistency in the data set after September 1993. Calibration prior to that time remains under review. The CSIRO2005:CO2-in-air scale is linked to the VPDB-CO2 scale via a number of internally maintained pure CO2 standards in large-volume glass containers prepared from high-pressure cylinders of high-purity CO2 with stable isotopic composition close to that of atmospheric air. The current link to VPDB-CO2 was established between pure CO2 sub-samples and one air standard in early 1998. The link has been constantly monitored by comparisons between the sub-samples, other high-purity CO2 samples maintained for monitoring purposes, and via international standard gas intercomparisons exercises [Allison & Francey, 2004; Levin et al., 2002, Mukai et al., 2005] and flask air sharing comparisons with several laboratories [e.g. Masarie et al., 2001].
 Flask data are assigned flags to indicate whether they are classified as retained or rejected. Cause of rejection falls into three broad categories: (i) the sample is considered to be not representative of the atmosphere at the time and place of sampling due to identified or inferred sampling or analytical problems (e.g. sample contamination, poor analysis), (ii) the sample is considered to be “non-baseline” as indicated by the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling and (iii) any remaining outliers are flagged on the basis of a 3-sigma filter (geographically fixed sites only). For completeness, all data are included here, regardless of whether they are retained or rejected. Please note that for routine “baseline” applications, any rejected data must be actively excluded from the provided data sets, while for “non-baseline” applications data flagged under categories (ii) and (iii) above may carry biogeochemical information (see DATA FORMAT section below). Also, further data selection may be desirable for those data sets that cannot be screened by the 3-sigma filter (e.g. AIA; aircraft).
 [Hourly]
 [Daily]
 [Monthly] Monthly means are calculated as the mean of daily values from a smooth curve fit to the baseline data (with flags "...") using the curve-fitting routines described by Thoning et al., JGR, 1989.
The std devs for the monthly means are calculated from the std dev of the monthly mean from the daily smooth curve values and the std dev of the residuals of each data point about the smooth curve for that month.
 flags: "..." indicates no flags, sample retained. Any entry other than "." in the first flag column indicates the sample is not representative of the time and place of sampling:
A = no sample taken
B = sample lost before analysis
C = identified sampling error
D = suspected sampling problem (eg. 2 or more species give anomalous values)
E = mixed samples (time/place not unique)
N = unacceptable analysis
* = no analysis data available
H = species-specific manually applied rejection flag
I = species-specific sample collection problem
J = irretrievable sample storage effect
. = not subject to any of the above flags

Any entry other than ""."" in the second flag column indicates the sample is non-baseline, rejected only on grounds of being an outlier or is excluded from this data set because of a non-standard sampling technique.
F = non-baseline meteorological conditions
G = marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
K = species-specific non-baseline meteorological conditions
L = species-specific marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
M = 3 sigma filter rejected
O = non-standard sampling technique
. = not subject to any of the above flags
 Operational/Reporting
 CSIRO GASLAB flask CO2 [C-13] data measured by Mass Spectrometry
 Wind direction:
 Wind speed:
 Relative humidity:
 Precipitation amount:
 Air pressure:
 Air temperature:
 Dew point temperature:
 Sea water temperature:
 Sea surface water temperature:
 Sea water salinity:
 Sea surface water salinity:
Meteorological data may remain as first provded, even when greenhouse gas data are updated.
 
1  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, C.E. Allison, L.N. Cooper. B.L. Dunse, B.G. Bell, T.D. Murray, H.S. Tait, L. Thompson and K.A. Masarie. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and its isotopes, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and hydrogen from Shetland. Atmos. Environ., 32, 3331-3338, 1998.
2  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds and B.C. Pak, High precision long-term monitoring of radiatively-active trace gases at surface sites and from ships and aircraft in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere. J. Atmos. Science, 56, 279-285, 1999.
3  Allison, C.E., and R.J. Francey, Verifying Southern Hemisphere trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide stable isotopes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D21304, doi: 10.1 029/2006J0007345, 2007.
4  Allison, C.E., R.J. Francey, and H.A.J. Meijer, Recommendations for the reporting of stable isotope measurements of carbon and oxygen in CO2 gas. Reference and Intercomparison Materials for Stable Isotopes of Light Elements, IAEA-TEDOC-825, edited by K. Rozanski, Vienna, pp. 155-162, 1995.
5  Allison, C.E., and R.J. Francey. Maintain the CLASSIC cylinder suite and provide links to the CLASSIC suite for the international community studying atmospheric greenhouse gases: technical contract number TC-1232/RBF: final report / prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Aspendale, Vic.: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. 40 p, 2004.
6  Cooper, L.N., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, D.A. Spencer and M.P. Lucarelli. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1996, edited by J.L. Gras, N. Derek, N.W. Tindale and A.L. Dick, pp 98 - 102, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1999.
7  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, C.E. Allison, D.J. Beardsmore, S.A. Coram, N. Derek, F.R. de Silva, D.M. Etheridge, P.J. Fraser, R.J. Henry, B. Turner, E.D. Welch, D.A. Spencer and L.N. Cooper. Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory (GASLAB): supporting and extending the Cape Grim trace gas programs. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 8 - 29, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
8  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, R.L. Langenfelds, R.M. Law, P.B. Krummel, P.J. Fraser, D.M. Etheridge, N. Derek, S.A. Coram, L.N. Cooper, C.E. Allison, L. Porter and S. Baly, The CSIRO (Australia) measurement of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere, report of the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, September 2001, S.Toru and S. Kazuto (editors), World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch, 97-111, 2003.
9  Fraser, P.J., S.A. Coram and N. Derek. Atmospheric methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1991, edited by A.L. Dick and J.L. Gras, pp 60 - 64, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1994.
10  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, P.J. Fraser, S.A. Coram, M.R. Hayes, D.J. Beardsmore, M.P. Lucarelli, and F.R. de Silva, Improved vertical sampling of the trace gas composition of the troposphere above Cape Grim since 1991, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 45-56, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
11  Langenfelds, R.L., L.N. Cooper, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, P.B. Krummel and P.J. Fraser. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek, and R.J. Francey, pp 69 - 74, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001a.
12  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer and B.L. Dunse, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and R.J. Francey, pp 74 - 84, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001b.
13  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, B.C. Pak, L.P. Steele, J. Lloyd, C.M. Trudinger and C.E. Allison, Interannual growth rate variations of atmospheric CO2 and its δ13C, H2, CH4 and CO between 1992 and 1999 linked to biomass burning, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(3), 1048, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466, 2002a.
14  Langenfelds, R.L., Studies of the global carbon cycle using atmospheric oxygen and associated tracers, PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 320 pp., 2002b.
15  Langenfelds, R.L., P.B. Krummel, C.E. Allison, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.E.J. Worthy, L. Huang, M. Ernst and A. Chivulescu, Intercomparison of MSC and CSIRO trace gas data from Alert and Estevan Point, Canadian Baseline Program Summary of Progress to 2002, Meteorological Service of Canada, 67-76, 2003a.
16  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, B.L. Dunse, T.M. Butler, D.A. Spencer, L.M. Kivlighon and C.P. Meyer, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1999-2000, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and P.J. Fraser, pp 73 - 75, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2003b.
17  Langenfelds, R.L., M.V. van der Schoot, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.A. Spencer and P.B. Krummel, Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 2001-2002, edited by J. Cainey, N. Derek, and P.B. Krummel, pp 46 - 47, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2004.
18  Levin, I., et al. EuroSiberian Carbonflux - CO2 intercomparison, Report of the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracers Measurement Techniques, September 25-28, 2001, Tokyo, 2002.
19  Masarie, K.A., R.L. Langenfelds, C.E. Allison, T.J. Conway, E.J. Dlugokencky, R.J. Francey, P.C. Novelli, L.P. Steele, P.P. Tans, B. Vaughn and J.W.C. White, NOAA/CSIRO Flask Air Intercomparison Experiment: A strategy for directly assessing consistency among atmospheric measurements made by independent laboratories, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20445-20464, 2001.
20  Mukai, H., J. Iwami, Y. Tatematsu, Y. Kajita, F. Endo, C.E. Allison, and R.J. Francey, About disagreement between inter-comparisons of isotopic ratio measurements for CO2. 13th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, Boulder, Colorado. Colorado: NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division, 2005.
21  Pak, B.C., R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele and I. Simmonds, A climatology of trace gases from the Cape Grim overflights, 1992 - 1995, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-5, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 41 - 52, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
22  Pak, B.C., Vertical structure of atmospheric trace gases over Southeast Australia, PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia, 273 pp. (available at the Australian Digital Theses Project via http://adt1.lib.unimelb.edu.au/adt-root/public/), 2000.
23  Pak, B.C., R.L. Langenfelds, S.A. Young, R.J. Francey, C.P. Meyer, L.M. Kivlighon, L.N. Cooper, B.L. Dunse, C.E. Allison, L.P. Steele, I.E. Galbally and I.A. Weeks, Measurements of biomass burning influences in the troposphere over southeast Australia during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8480, doi:10.1029/2002JD002343, 2003.
24  Steele, L.P., R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, P.J. Fraser, L.N. Cooper, D.A. Spencer, S. Chea and K. Broadhurst. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-95, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 107 - 110, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
25  Sturm, P., M. Leuenberger, C. Sirignano, R.E.M. Neubert, H.A.J. Meijer, R.L. Langenfelds, W.A. Brand and Y. Tohjima, Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04309, doi:10.1029.2003JD004073, 2004.
26  Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans and W.D. Komhyr, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2, Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974 - 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8549-8565, 1989.