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 Organization

NO 16
Acronym CSIRO
Name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Address 3 Private Bag 1, Aspendale, Vic, Australia 3195
Country/Territory Australia
Website https://research.csiro.au/acc/

 Contact(s)

Name Paul Krummel
Prefix Mr.
Email paul.krummel@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4568
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-09-10


Name Ray Langenfelds
Prefix Dr.
Email ray.langenfelds@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4598
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-09-10


Name Zoë Loh
Prefix Dr.
Email zoe.loh@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4518
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-06-29


 Background observation
 UTC
 ppm
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: WMO CO2 X2007
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: Carle gas chromatograph(Gas chromatography (FID))
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: 38 (m)
 event
 Data are reported in the WMOX2007 CO2 Mole Fraction Scale. The link to this scale was established with 12 ‘primary’ high-pressure cylinder standards with a CO2 range of 290 - 423 ppm. Of these, 9 are synthetic mixtures of CO2, CH4 and CO in zero (natural) air calibrated by NOAA in 1992, with subsets recalibrated in 1994, 2001 and 2015. The highest concentration standards are natural air, calibrated by NOAA in 2001 and 2015. The relative stability of the primary suite is monitored using frequent comparisons with about 15 long-lived secondary standards. The link to the international scale is monitored by a variety of on-going comparisons involving high-pressure cylinder standards (e.g. WMO Round Robins), as well as 6-per-month flask-air-sharing comparisons of samples collected at Cape Grim.
 Flask data are assigned flags to indicate whether they are classified as retained or rejected. Cause of rejection falls into three broad categories: (i) the sample is considered to be not representative of the atmosphere at the time and place of sampling due to identified or inferred sampling or analytical problems (eg. sample contamination, poor analysis), (ii) the sample is considered to be “non-baseline” as indicated by the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling and (iii) any remaining outliers are flagged on the basis of a 3-sigma filter (geographically fixed sites only). For completeness, all data are included here, regardless of whether they are retained or rejected. Please note that for routine “baseline” applications, any rejected data must be actively excluded from the provided data sets, while for “non-baseline” applications data flagged under categories (ii) and (iii) above may carry biogeochemical information (see DATA FORMAT section below). Also, further data selection may be desirable for those data sets that cannot be screened by the 3-sigma filter (e.g. AIA; aircraft).
 [Hourly]
 [Daily]
 [Monthly] Monthly means are calculated as the mean of daily values from a smooth curve fit to the baseline data (with flags "...") using the curve-fitting routines described by Thoning et al., JGR, 1989.
The std devs for the monthly means are calculated from the std dev of the monthly mean from the daily smooth curve values and the std dev of the residuals of each data point about the smooth curve for that month.
 flags: "..." indicates no flags, sample retained. Any entry other than "." in the first flag column indicates the sample is not representative of the time and place of sampling:
A = no sample taken
B = sample lost before analysis
C = identified sampling error
D = suspected sampling problem (eg. 2 or more species give anomalous values)
E = mixed samples (time/place not unique)
N = unacceptable analysis
* = no analysis data available
H = species-specific manually applied rejection flag
I = species-specific sample collection problem
J = irretrievable sample storage effect
. = not subject to any of the above flags

Any entry other than ""."" in the second flag column indicates the sample is non-baseline, rejected only on grounds of being an outlier or is excluded from this data set because of a non-standard sampling technique.
F = non-baseline meteorological conditions
G = marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
K = species-specific non-baseline meteorological conditions
L = species-specific marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
M = 3 sigma filter rejected
O = non-standard sampling technique
. = not subject to any of the above flags
 Operational/Reporting
 CSIRO GASLAB flask CO2 data measured by Gas Chromatography (FID)
 Wind direction:
 Wind speed:
 Relative humidity:
 Precipitation amount:
 Air pressure:
 Air temperature:
 Dew point temperature:
 Sea water temperature:
 Sea surface water temperature:
 Sea water salinity:
 Sea surface water salinity:
Meteorological data may remain as first provded, even when greenhouse gas data are updated.
 
1  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds and B.C. Pak, High precision long-term monitoring of radiatively-active trace gases at surface sites and from ships and aircraft in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere. J. Atmos. Science, 56, 279-285, 1999.
2  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, C.E. Allison, L.N. Cooper. B.L. Dunse, B.G. Bell, T.D. Murray, H.S. Tait, L. Thompson and K.A. Masarie. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and its isotopes, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and hydrogen from Shetland. Atmos. Environ., 32, 3331-3338, 1998.
3  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, B.L. Dunse, T.M. Butler, D.A. Spencer, L.M. Kivlighon and C.P. Meyer, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1999-2000, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and P.J. Fraser, pp 73 - 75, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2003b.
4  Basu, S., S. Guerlet, A. Butz, S. Houweling, O. Hasekamp, I. Aben, P. Krummel, P. Steele, R. Langenfelds, M. Torn, S. Biraud, B. Stephens, A. Andrews, and D. Worthy, Global CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT retrievals of total column CO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8695-8717, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8695-2013, 2013.
5  Bhattacharya, S.K., D.V. Borole, R.J. Francey, C.E. Allison, L.P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K.A. Masarie, Y.K. Tiwari and P.K. Patra, Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India, Current Science, 97, 9, 2009.
6  Chevallier, F., P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, B. E. T. Aalto, Anderson, P. Bousquet, E. G. Brunke, Y. Esaki, M. Frohlich, A.J. Gomez-Pelaez, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, M. Leuenberger, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, J. A. Morgui, H. Mukai, T. Nakazawa, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, L. Rivier, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, P. Steele, S. A. Vay, A. T. Vermeulen, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, CO2 surface fluxes at grid point scale estimated from a global 21 year reanalysis of atmospheric measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D21307, doi:10.1029/2010JD013887, 2010.
7  Chevallier, F., N. Deutscher, T. J. Conway, P. Ciais, L. Ciattaglia, S. Dohe, M. Frohlich, A.J. Gomez-Pelaez, D. Griffith, F. Hase, L. Haszpra, P. Krummel, E. Kyro, C. Labuschagne, R. Langenfelds, T. Machida, F. Maignan, H. Matsueda, I. Morino, J. Notholt, M. Ramonet, Y. Sawa, M. Schmidt, V. Sherlock, P. Steele, K. Strong, R. Sussmann, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, D. Worthy, D. Wunch, M. Zimnoch, Global CO2 fluxes inferred from surface air-sample measurements and from TCCON retrievals of the total CO2 column, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L24810, doi:10.1029/2011GL049899, 2011.
8  Cooper, L.N., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, D.A. Spencer and M.P. Lucarelli. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1996, edited by J.L. Gras, N. Derek, N.W. Tindale and A.L. Dick, pp 98 - 102, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1999.
9  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, C.E. Allison, D.J. Beardsmore, S.A. Coram, N. Derek, F.R. de Silva, D.M. Etheridge, P.J. Fraser, R.J. Henry, B. Turner, E.D. Welch, D.A. Spencer and L.N. Cooper. Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory (GASLAB): supporting and extending the Cape Grim trace gas programs. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 8 - 29, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
10  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, R.L. Langenfelds, R.M. Law, P.B. Krummel, P.J. Fraser, D.M. Etheridge, N. Derek, S.A. Coram, L.N. Cooper, C.E. Allison, L. Porter and S. Baly, The CSIRO (Australia) measurement of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere, report of the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, September 2001, S.Toru and S. Kazuto (editors), World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch, 97-111, 2003.
11  Francey, R., C. Trudinger, M. van der Schoot, P. Krummel, P. Steele & R. Langenfelds, Differences between trends in atmospheric CO2 and the reported trends in anthropogenic CO2 emissions, Tellus B, 62: 316-328, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00472.x, 2010.
12  Francey, R. J., C. M. Trudinger, M. van der Schoot, R. M. Law, P. B. Krummel, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, C. E. Allison, A. R. Stavert, R. J. Andres and C. Roedenbeck, Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends, Nature Climate Change, 3, 520-524, doi:10.1038/nclimate1817, 2013.
13  Fraser, A., P. I. Palmer, L. Feng, H. Bosch, R. Parker, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. B. Krummel, and R. L. Langenfelds, Estimating regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using space-borne observations of XCH4:XCO2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12883-12895, doi:10.5194/acp-14-12883-2014, 2014.
14  Fraser, P.J., S.A. Coram and N. Derek. Atmospheric methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1991, edited by A.L. Dick and J.L. Gras, pp 60 - 64, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1994.
15  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, P.J. Fraser, S.A. Coram, M.R. Hayes, D.J. Beardsmore, M.P. Lucarelli, and F.R. de Silva, Improved vertical sampling of the trace gas composition of the troposphere above Cape Grim since 1991, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 45-56, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
16  Langenfelds, R.L., L.N. Cooper, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, P.B. Krummel and P.J. Fraser. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek, and R.J. Francey, pp 69 - 74, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001a.
17  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer and B.L. Dunse, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and R.J. Francey, pp 74 - 84, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001b.
18  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, B.C. Pak, L.P. Steele, J. Lloyd, C.M. Trudinger and C.E. Allison, Interannual growth rate variations of atmospheric CO2 and its δ13C, H2, CH4 and CO between 1992 and 1999 linked to biomass burning, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(3), 1048, doi:10.1029/2001GB001466, 2002a.
19  Langenfelds, R.L., Studies of the global carbon cycle using atmospheric oxygen and associated tracers, PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 320 pp., 2002b.
20  Langenfelds, R.L., P.B. Krummel, C.E. Allison, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.E.J. Worthy, L. Huang, M. Ernst and A. Chivulescu, Intercomparison of MSC and CSIRO trace gas data from Alert and Estevan Point, Canadian Baseline Program Summary of Progress to 2002, Meteorological Service of Canada, 67-76, 2003a.
21  Langenfelds, R.L., M.V. van der Schoot, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.A.Spencer and P.B. Krummel, Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 2001-2002, edited by J. Cainey, N. Derek, and P.B. Krummel, pp 46 - 47, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2004.
22  Le Quere, C., C. Rodenbeck, E.T. Buitenhuis, T.J. Conway, R. Langenfelds, A. Gomez, C. Labuschagne, M. Ramonet, T. Nakazawa, N. Metzl, N. Gillett and M. Heimann, Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735; DOI:10.1126/science.1136188, 2007.
23  Masarie, K.A., R.L. Langenfelds, C.E. Allison, T.J. Conway, E.J. Dlugokencky, R.J. Francey, P.C. Novelli, L.P. Steele, P.P. Tans, B. Vaughn and J.W.C. White, NOAA/CSIRO Flask Air Intercomparison Experiment: A strategy for directly assessing consistency among atmospheric measurements made by independent laboratories, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20445-20464, 2001.
24  Pak, B.C., R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele and I. Simmonds, A climatology of trace gases from the Cape Grim overflights, 1992 - 1995, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-5, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 41 - 52, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
25  Pak, B.C., Vertical structure of atmospheric trace gases over Southeast Australia, PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia, 273 pp. (available at the University of Melbourne ePrints Repository via http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/eprints/), 2000.
26  Pak, B. C., R.L. Langenfelds, S.A. Young, R.J. Francey, C.P. Meyer, L.M. Kivlighon, L.N. Cooper, B.L. Dunse, C.E. Allison, L.P. Steele, I.E. Galbally and I.A. Weeks, Measurements of biomass burning influences in the troposphere over southeast Australia during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8480, doi:10.1029/2002JD002343, 2003.
27  Steele, L.P., R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, P.J. Fraser, L.N. Cooper, D.A. Spencer, S. Chea and K. Broadhurst. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-95, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 107 - 110, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
28  Stephens, B.B., K.R. Gurney, P.P Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R.L. Langenfelds, L.P. Steele, R.J Francey and A.S. Denning, Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2, Science, 316, 1732; DOI:10.1126/science.1137004, 2007.
29  Sturm, P., M. Leuenberger, C. Sirignano, R. E. M. Neubert, H. A. J. Meijer, R. Langenfelds, W. A. Brand and Y. Tohjima, Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04309, doi:10.1029.2003JD004073, 2004.
30  Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans and W.D. Komhyr, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2, Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974 - 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8549-8565, 1989.
31  Tiwari, Y.K., P.K. Patra, F. Chevallier, R.J. Francey, P.B. Krummel, C.E. Allison, J.V. Revadekar, S. Chakraborty, R.L. Langenfelds, S.K. Bhattacharya, D.V. Borole, K.R. Kumar and L.P. Steele, Carbon dioxide observations at Cape Rama, India for the period 1993-2002: implications for constraining Indian emissions, Current Science, Vol 101, No. 12, 1562-1568, 2011.