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 Organization

NO 16
Acronym CSIRO
Name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Address 3 Private Bag 1, Aspendale, Vic, Australia 3195
Country/Territory Australia
Website https://research.csiro.au/acc/

 Contact(s)

Name Paul Krummel
Prefix Mr.
Email paul.krummel@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4568
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-07-30


Name Ray Langenfelds
Prefix Dr.
Email ray.langenfelds@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4598
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-07-30


Name Zoë Loh
Prefix Dr.
Email zoe.loh@csiro.au
Organization No 16
Organization acronym CSIRO
Organization name Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Organization country/territory Australia
Address 1 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere - Climate Science Centre
Address 2 107-121 Station Street Aspendale
Address 3 Victoria, 3195 Australia
Country/territory Australia
Tel (+613) 9239 4518
Fax (+613) 9239 4444
Last updated date 2020-06-29


 Background observation
 UTC
 ppb
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: WMO N2O X2006A
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: Shimadzu gas chromatograph(Gas chromatography (ECD))
 9999-12-31 00:00:00 - 9999-12-31 23:59:59: 10 (m)
 event
 Data are reported in the NOAA-2006A N2O scale (Hall et al., 2007; updates at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccl/n2o_scale.html). Stability of the CSIRO scale is monitored with ~30 high-pressure cylinder standards, with lifetimes of 10-20+ years. Further details of calibration and measurement uncertainty are given by Francey et al. (2003).
 Flask data are assigned flags to indicate whether they are classified as retained or rejected. Cause of rejection falls into three broad categories: (i) the sample is considered to be not representative of the atmosphere at the time and place of sampling due to identified or inferred sampling or analytical problems (eg. sample contamination, poor analysis), (ii) the sample is considered to be “non-baseline” as indicated by the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling and (iii) any remaining outliers are flagged on the basis of a 3-sigma filter (geographically fixed sites only). For completeness, all data are included here, regardless of whether they are retained or rejected. Please note that for routine “baseline” applications, any rejected data must be actively excluded from the provided data sets, while for “non-baseline” applications data flagged under categories (ii) and (iii) above may carry biogeochemical information (see DATA FORMAT section below). Also, further data selection may be desirable for those data sets that cannot be screened by the 3-sigma filter (e.g. AIA; aircraft).
 [Hourly]
 [Daily]
 [Monthly] Monthly means are calculated as the mean of daily values from a smooth curve fit to the baseline data (with flags "...") using the curve-fitting routines described by Thoning et al., JGR, 1989.
The std devs for the monthly means are calculated from the std dev of the monthly mean from the daily smooth curve values and the std dev of the residuals of each data point about the smooth curve for that month.
 flags: "..." indicates no flags, sample retained. Any entry other than "." in the first flag column indicates the sample is not representative of the time and place of sampling:
A = no sample taken
B = sample lost before analysis
C = identified sampling error
D = suspected sampling problem (eg. 2 or more species give anomalous values)
E = mixed samples (time/place not unique)
N = unacceptable analysis
* = no analysis data available
H = species-specific manually applied rejection flag
I = species-specific sample collection problem
J = irretrievable sample storage effect
. = not subject to any of the above flags

Any entry other than ""."" in the second flag column indicates the sample is non-baseline, rejected only on grounds of being an outlier or is excluded from this data set because of a non-standard sampling technique.
F = non-baseline meteorological conditions
G = marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
K = species-specific non-baseline meteorological conditions
L = species-specific marginal-baseline meteorological conditions
M = 3 sigma filter rejected
O = non-standard sampling technique
. = not subject to any of the above flags
 Operational/Reporting
 CSIRO GASLAB flask N2O data measured by Gas Chromatography (ECD)
 Wind direction:
 Wind speed:
 Relative humidity:
 Precipitation amount:
 Air pressure:
 Air temperature:
 Dew point temperature:
 Sea water temperature:
 Sea surface water temperature:
 Sea water salinity:
 Sea surface water salinity:
Meteorological data may remain as first provded, even when greenhouse gas data are updated.
 
1  Bhattacharya, S.K., D.V. Borole, R.J. Francey, C.E. Allison, L.P. Steele, P. Krummel, R. Langenfelds, K.A. Masarie, Y.K. Tiwari and P.K. Patra, Trace gases and CO2 isotope records from Cabo de Rama, India, Current Science, 97, 9, 2009.
2  Cooper, L.N., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, D.A. Spencer and M.P. Lucarelli. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1996, edited by J.L. Gras, N. Derek, N.W. Tindale and A.L. Dick, pp 98 - 102, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1999.
3  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, C.E. Allison, D.J. Beardsmore, S.A. Coram, N. Derek, F.R. de Silva, D.M. Etheridge, P.J. Fraser, R.J. Henry, B. Turner, E.D. Welch, D.A. Spencer and L.N. Cooper. Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory (GASLAB): supporting and extending the Cape Grim trace gas programs. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 8 - 29, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
4  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, C.E. Allison, L.N. Cooper. B.L. Dunse, B.G. Bell, T.D. Murray, H.S. Tait, L. Thompson and K.A. Masarie. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and its isotopes, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and hydrogen from Shetland. Atmos. Environ., 32, 3331-3338, 1998.
5  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds and B.C. Pak, High precision long-term monitoring of radiatively-active trace gases at surface sites and from ships and aircraft in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere. J. Atmos. Science, 56, 279-285, 1999.
6  Francey, R.J., L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, R.L. Langenfelds, R.M. Law, P.B. Krummel, P.J. Fraser, D.M. Etheridge, N. Derek, S.A. Coram, L.N. Cooper, C.E. Allison, L. Porter and S. Baly, The CSIRO (Australia) measurement of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere, report of the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques, Tokyo, Japan, September 2001, S.Toru and S. Kazuto (editors), World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch, 97-111, 2003.
7  Hall, B. D., G. S. Dutton, and J. W. Elkins, The NOAA nitrous oxide standard scale for atmospheric observations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D09305, doi:10.1029/2006JD007954, 2007.
8  Hall, B. D., A. Engel, J. Muhle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, J. Rhoderick, E. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. Vollmer, R. Weiss, D. Worthy and Y. Yokouchi, Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE), Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469-490, doi:10.5194/amt-7-469-2014, 2014.
9  Huang, J., A. Golombek, R. Prinn, R. Weiss, P. Fraser, P. Simmonds, E.J. Dlugokencky, B. Hall, J. Elkins, P. Steele, R. Langenfelds, P. Krummel, G. Dutton and L. Porter, Estimation of regional emissions of nitrous oxide from 1997 to 2005 using multinetwork measurements, a chemical transport model, and an inverse method, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17313, doi:10.1029/2007JD009381, 2008.
10  Ishijima, K., P.K. Patra, M. Takigawa, T. Machida, H. Matsueda, Y. Sawa, L.P. Steele, P.B. Krummel, R.L. Langenfelds, S. Aoki and T. Nakazawa, Stratospheric influence on the seasonal cycle of nitrous oxide in the troposphere as deduced from aircraft observations and model simulations , J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20308, doi:10.1029/2009JD013322, 2010.
11  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, P.J. Fraser, S.A. Coram, M.R. Hayes, D.J. Beardsmore, M.P. Lucarelli, and F.R. de Silva, Improved vertical sampling of the trace gas composition of the troposphere above Cape Grim since 1991, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1993, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 45-56, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
12  Langenfelds, R.L., L.N. Cooper, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer, P.B. Krummel and P.J. Fraser. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek, and R.J. Francey, pp 69 - 74, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001a.
13  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, D.A. Spencer and B.L. Dunse, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1997-98, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and R.J. Francey, pp 74 - 84, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2001b.
14  Langenfelds, R.L., Studies of the global carbon cycle using atmospheric oxygen and associated tracers, PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 320 pp., 2002.
15  Langenfelds, R.L., P.B. Krummel, C.E. Allison, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.E.J. Worthy, L. Huang, M. Ernst and A. Chivulescu, Intercomparison of MSC and CSIRO trace gas data from Alert and Estevan Point, Canadian Baseline Program Summary of Progress to 2002, Meteorological Service of Canada, 67-76, 2003a.
16  Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele, B.L. Dunse, T.M. Butler, D.A. Spencer, L.M. Kivlighon and C.P. Meyer, Flask sampling from Cape Grim overflights, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1999-2000, edited by N.W. Tindale, N. Derek and P.J. Fraser, pp 73 - 75, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2003b.
17  Langenfelds, R.L., M.V. van der Schoot, L.P. Steele, L.N. Cooper, D.A.Spencer and P.B. Krummel, Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 2001-2002, edited by J. Cainey, N. Derek, and P.B. Krummel, pp 46 - 47, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 2004.
18  Nevison, C.D., E. Dlugokencky, G. Dutton, J.W. Elkins, P. Fraser, B. Hall, P.B. Krummel, R.L. Langenfelds, S. O'Doherty, R.G. Prinn, L.P. Steele & R.F. Weiss, Exploring causes of interannual variability in the seasonal cycles of tropospheric nitrous oxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, doi:10.5194/acp-11-1-2011, 1-18, 2011.
19  Pak, B.C., R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, L.P. Steele and I. Simmonds, A climatology of trace gases from the Cape Grim overflights, 1992 - 1995, in Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-5, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 41 - 52, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
20  Pak, B.C., Vertical structure of atmospheric trace gases over Southeast Australia, PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia, 273 pp. (available at the University of Melbourne ePrints Repository via http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/eprints/), 2000.
21  Pak, B. C., R.L. Langenfelds, S.A. Young, R.J. Francey, C.P. Meyer, L.M. Kivlighon, L.N. Cooper, B.L. Dunse, C.E. Allison, L.P. Steele, I.E. Galbally and I.A. Weeks, Measurements of biomass burning influences in the troposphere over southeast Australia during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13), 8480, doi:10.1029/2002JD002343, 2003.
22  Saikawa, E., R. G. Prinn, E. Dlugokencky, K. Ishijima, G. S. Dutton, B. D. Hall, R. L. Langenfelds, Y. Tohjima, T. Machida, M. Manizza, M. Rigby, S. O'Doherty, P. K. Patra, C. M. Harth, R. F. Weiss, P. B. Krummel, M. van der Schoot, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. Aoki, T. Nakazawa, and J. W. Elkins, Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4617-4641, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4617-2014, 2014.
23  Steele, L.P., R.L. Langenfelds, M.P. Lucarelli, P.J. Fraser, L.N. Cooper, D.A. Spencer, S. Chea and K. Broadhurst. Atmospheric methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrous oxide from Cape Grim flask air samples analysed by gas chromatography. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1994-95, edited by R.J. Francey, A.L. Dick and N. Derek, pp 107 - 110, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1996.
24  Sturm, P., M. Leuenberger, C. Sirignano, R. E. M. Neubert, H. A. J. Meijer, R. Langenfelds, W. A. Brand and Y. Tohjima, Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04309, doi:10.1029.2003JD004073, 2004.
25  Thompson, R. L., E. Dlugokencky, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, G. Dutton, J. W. Elkins, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, and P. J. Fraser, Inter-annual variability in tropospheric nitrous oxide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4426-4431, doi:10.1002/grl.50721, 2013.
26  Thompson, R. L., F. Chevallier, A. M. Crotwell, G. Dutton, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, T. Nakazawa, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. J. Fraser, S. O'Doherty, K. Ishijima, and S. Aoki, Nitrous oxide emissions 1999 - 2009 from a global atmospheric inversion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1801-1817, doi:10.5194/acp-14-1801-2014, 2014.
27  Thompson, R. L., P. K. Patra, K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, C. Wilson, P. Bergamaschi, E. Dlugokencky, C. Sweeney, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, M. Saunois, M. Chipperfield, and P. Bousquet, TransCom N2O model inter-comparison - Part 1: Assessing the influence of transport and surface fluxes on tropospheric N2O variability, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4349-4368, doi:10.5194/acp-14-4349-2014, 2014.
28  Thompson, R. L., K. Ishijima, E. Saikawa, M. Corazza, U. Karstens, P. K. Patra, P. Bergamaschi, F. Chevallier, E. Dlugokencky, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, P. B. Krummel, A. Vermeulen, Y. Tohjima, A. Jordan, L. Haszpra, M. Steinbacher, S. Van der Laan, T. Aalto, F. Meinhardt, M. E. Popa, J. Moncrieff, and P. Bousquet, TransCom N2O model inter-comparison Part II: Atmospheric inversion estimates of N2O emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6177-6194, doi:10.5194/acp-14-6177-2014, 2014.
29  Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans and W.D. Komhyr, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2, Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974 - 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8549-8565, 1989.